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Type 100
Type of aircraft
Country Netherlands
Date first flight 1986
Wingspan 28.076 m
Lenght 35.53 m
number of passengers 119
Enginetype Rolls Royce TAY 620-15
6288 kg/13850 lbs
speed 320kts/0.77 MACH
ceiling 11285 m/37.000 ft
range 2700 km/1680 NM

At the same time as Fokker announced the F27-based F50, they revealed the plans for a new "fellowship"-series airliner in 1983.

Based on the Fokker 28 Mk4000, this new aircraft was named Fokker F100.

The noticable differences are the much longer fuselage, the modern Rolls-Royce Tay Turbofan-engines and a new wing-design. Additionally, the F100 features a modern glass-cockpit.

Other companies such as Airbus, Shorts, Grumman, Rolls-Royce and Dowty Rotol took part in the production of the F100. Two types of the F100 went into flight testing. The first (PH-MKH) took off on November 30st, 1986, followed by the second (PH-MKC), which started on February 25th, 1987.

After the F100 equipped with Tay 620-15 engines recieved authorisation, the first units were delivered to Swissair in February 1988. The Tay 650 version was authorized in July 1989 and shortly after that, the first aircraft flew for US Air.

In 1991, Fokker had already produced 70 units and had orders for a total of more than 230 F100.

For the aircraft delivered from 1993 on, the range could be extended some 450 km by a higher take-off weight and additional fuel-tanks in the wings.

A quick charge F100 is available since 1994. It features a cargo-door on the left side right behind the cockpit.

Fokker 100

Fokker 100 panel, C

Fokker F.100 Prototype

Fokker 50 and 100 behind, the Fokker aircrafts of the eighties

The Fokker 100 superceded the F28 in 1986. Fokker demonstrator PH-MKC is seen going airborne at Amsterdam Int'l

PH-KLE is seen here waiting for a customer. Fokker did not meet the deadline for deliveries to KLM, causing a lot of irritation. It did not help either that another large customer for the F100, Air Europe, went bankrupt



The great breakthrough

When Saturday 29 November 1986 dawned it was not quite what the Fokker Flight Test department had hoped for. Fokker engineers had burned a lot of midnight oil to have the prototype Fokker 100 ready for its first flight on that day.

However, Schiphol airport was completely shrouded in thick fog which eliminated the possibility of taking the aircraft up. All that could be performed were taxiing tests - some of them fast enough to lift the nose wheel from the runway.


The next day, Sunday 30 November, looked like being a repeat of Saturday, with fog all over the place. But in the afternoon the sun broke through and at 14.16 hours the Fokker 100 was airborne for the first time. Chief test pilot Henk Themmen was assisted at the controls by Wim Huson as co-pilot and Wim Burgers as flight engineer. Slightly more than two hours later the maiden flight was successfully concluded with a fully automatic landing.


The Fokker 100 is a dedicated 100-seater tailor-made to meet the main market requirements of the short- to medium-haul market today and well into the future. The aircraft offers a major breakthrough compared with old-technology jets in terms of operating costs, comfort levels and productivity.

It can carry more than 100 passengers over distances of up to 1,700 nm. In the early 1980s, when the first designs for the Fokker 50 and Fokker 100 were developed, Fokker had already acquired an enormous amount of experience in the short- to medium-haul market with the F27 and F28.

However, these aircraft were mainly sold to small and medium sized airlines. With the Fokker 100 Fokker was offering a modern aircraft which would meet not only the requirements of small regional airlines but also those of the largest major airlines in the world.

It was not easy for Fokker - a relatively small manufacturer - to gain a position between the larger aircraft manufacturers such as Boeing and Airbus, but the company succeeded. Today, the Fokker 100 is one of Europe's most successful commercial airliner programs, with over 400 orders and options. It is therefore a solid base for the Fokker jetLine, a family of modern jets.

The first new family member, the 70-80 seat Fokker 70, has already been launched. The proposed Fokker 130, a 130-seater, is at present a study project.

The Fokker 100 was designed together with the launch customers. This made the initial Fokker design even better. A typical example of this is the automatic landing system, which was tested on the very first flight.


Swissair wanted the most modern equipment in its Fokker 100s, just as it had in its other, larger aircraft. It would enable the airline to operate safely in adverse weather conditions.

The availability of the system virtually eliminated flight delays and cancellations due to weather problems. The automatic landing capability was only one of Swissair's wishes. There were many of them, one of which a service door in the rear of the cabin. KLM, the second customer, also had specific requirements when it came to doors.

The initial Fokker 100 design had a downward opening door with integral stairs. KLM wanted to use the aircraft mostly at airports where passenger loading bridges are used. A forward opening door was therefore designed and incorporated. The downward opening door is still available as an option. In addition, KLM wanted larger freight doors plus a luggage loading system. The third customer, USAir, in accordance with its house style, required a highly polished, unpainted fuselage skin. Until that moment Fokker aircraft had always been painted, not only for an attractive appearance but also to protect the aircraft against corrosion. A special procedure was developed to meet the USAir polished skin requirement.

Collaboration with leading airlines on adaption of the initial Fokker design to meet individual requirements resulted in a product which was even better suited to meeting market demands. The additional design work resulted in a rather odd situation for Fokker as it had more orders than ever before for a product which was still on the drawing board.


The Fokker 100 is quite a different aircraft compared with the F28.

This is particularly evident where its modern all-digital flight deck and avionics are concerned. The flight deck of the Fokker 100 is governed by the dark cockpit philosophy. This means that no indication lights are on during normal operation, which results in fewer distractions of the pilot's attention. Much of what was previously performed by the crew is now automated.

The captain of a Fokker 100, as with other modern airliners, is a manager rather than a driver. The new electronic tools which make this possible have intriguing initials such as EFIS, AFCAS, MFDS and FMS. EFIS, the electronic flight instrument system, displays the most important flight data and navigation information on four small TV screens, one above the other, left and right, for each of the flight crew.

The FMS, flight management system, handles navigation and helps reduce flight time and fuel burn. It can be programmed in such a way that the aircraft flies automatically from point A to point B. The AFCAS, automatic flight control and augmentation system, provides autopilot, flight director and altitude alert up to CAT IIIB autoland capabilities. The Fokker 100 is one of the few modern aircraft that offers full flight envelope protection.



This prevents the aircraft from stalling (alpha floor protection), also when combinations of horizontal and vertical speeds are selected on the AFCAS panel which exceed the performance limits. In case of an engine failure, this system automatically guides the aircraft to an altitude where level flight can be maintained. The MFDS, multi-function display system, consists of two TV screens in the center of the flight panel. These screens display engine information and secondary flight data centrally.

The WDS works in conjunction with the flight warning system, which monitors the correct functioning of engines and systems. In case of a malfunction, the WDS displays a warning which must be acknowledged by the crew. The necessary corrective actions are then spelled out. Other unique features of the system are that warnings are only given when necessary and consequently sometimes suppressed.

Therefore, during critical flight phases non-critical failures are recorded and displayed later. This considerably optimizes crew workload. Before being installed in the Fokker 100, all these avionics systems were tested in the F28 prototype, PH-JHG. All the original F28 equipment was retained and the Fokker 100 equipment was added. This allowed for comparison as the aircraft could be flown as either an F28 or a Fokker 100.


Powerplant of the Fokker 100 is a the Rolls-Royce Tay, a fuel-efficient, highly reliable high bypass turbofan which requires very little maintenance. As the engine is optimized for 1 high cycle operations - typical of the short - to medium-range segment - maintenance costs are very low.

The Tay is available in two versions: the Mk 620 as installed on the early Fokker 100s and the more powerful Mk 650.

The Fokker 100 is the quietest and cleanest 100-seater. Its quietness was clearly illustrated in February 1989 when noise tests were performed at John Wayne airport in Orange County near Los Angeles. The airport is well-known for having the most stringent noise limitations in the world.

The Fokker 100 showed that it produced less noise than any other airliner. It performed better than even the British Aerospace 146, which had hitherto been the quietest.

The Fokker 100 also has exceptionally low emission levels, meeting Stage III requirements by a wide margin.

Like the F28 the Fokker 100 is equipped with rear fuselage mounted air-brakes. These allow for high maneuverability in busy terminal control area.



With these speed brakes, the Fokker 100 can quickly respond to ATC requests for speed and altitude changes and can easily be squeezed into any approach pattern.

Time-consuming holdings can therefore be minimized. Each Fokker 100 embodies about 2,400 lb of non-metallic materials such as glass fiber, carbon fiber, Aramid and ceramics. These so-called composite materials are used for the flaps, rudder, elevator, engine, nacelles, floor panels, cabin interior and wing and tail fillets.

The Fokker 100 wing is based on that of the F28. The F28 torsion box, the backbone of the wing, was retained but the wing profile was redesigned, incorporating results of the earlier Super F28, F29 and MDF 100 design studies.

This gave the wing transonic characteristics, reducing drag at high speeds. The total wing area was increased to allow for the higher takeoff weight. In 1993 Fokker became a member of Deutsche Aerospace (DASA). Fokker already had close relations with another DASA member, Deutsche Aerospace Airbus (DA). The Fokker 100 is an international program and DA is one of the risk-sharing partners, building large parts of the fuselage and tail.

Other risks-haring partners are Bombardier Shorts, who builds the wing, and Grumman, who builds the nacelles and the thrust-reversers.


In only a few years' time the Fokker 100 has logged a considerable number of orders. First customer was Swissair, who ordered eight aircraft and took options on a further six on July 5, 1984. Deliveries to Swissair started in February 1988.

A very important order was USAir's contract for 20 Fokker 100s. This order, including an option for another 20, was signed on July 31, 1985. The options were all eventually converted into firm orders. Lease companies were also interested in the Fokker 100. ILFC was the first to sign an order for seven and GPA followed, ordering 31 aircraft.

A new firm was established to operate these aircraft, GPA Fokker Ltd. Fokker and its partners have a 25% interest in this subsidiary.



The biggest contract ever for any Dutch product came from American Airlines - one of the worlds largest airlines - with an order for 75 aircraft and an option on a further 75. For Fokker this was the breakthrough into the American market, also proving that airlines clearly have a requirement for 100-seaters. The Fokker 100 can be found all over the world. Customers include Air UK, China Eastern, Korean Airlines, Sempati Airlines of Indonesia, TAM Brasil and Air Gabon.

Per January 1, 1994 nearly 400 orders and options had been placed for the aircraft and 225 Fokker 100s were in active service.

In 1993 66 Fokker 100s were delivered, an absolute record.